SQL Server Storage: Reading Block Size

This is the final post in the SQL Server Storage line of blog posts I’ve made. First we discussed Pages & Extents, then how to Read A Page using T-SQL, and finally this post will be about Disk Partition Offsets and Allocation.

Knowing that Pages are 8 KB and Extents are 64 KB, it’s understandable that SQL would have the best performance when the disks are aligned in the same manner. However, in earlier versions of Windows, this was never the case. Instead, Windows used an alignment configuration of 63 512 Byte sectors for a total of 31.5 KB. Since the way SQL Server reads and writes was not aligned with Windows, havoc ensued in the form of increased I/O operations. As of Windows 2008, partitions are aligned at 1024 KB by default, providing fewer I/O operations since 1024 is a multiple of 64.

I tried to keep the above explanation simple, but it still got wordy. The takeaway should be: you want SQL Server disks to have a Starting Offset that is a multiple of 64 KB, with the desirable default being 1024 KB. Higher values are fine for special circumstances, just so long as your Starting Offset is evenly divisible by 64.
As for your block size, that should also be 64 KB, or the size of a single Extent, to improve performance.

There is a single script to find both Block Size and Starting Offset, and it almost even works!

Get-WmiObject win32_DiskPartition |
	SELECT SystemName, Name, BlockSize, StartingOffSet |
	FT -Auto

That script returns the correct Starting Offset, but that Block Size is a screwy number that should not be trusted. To make matters worse, you get a Partition Number, but no Drive Letter. That doesn’t help me understand if my data disk is formatted correctly. In comes another query.

Get-WmiObject -Class win32_Volume |
    FT DriveLetter, Label, BlockSize -Auto

Great, now we have an accurate BlockSize and a Drive Letter! The only problem is, now there is no Partition Number to match up with the OffSet from the first query. Getting ALL the information at one time is a pain. Luckily there are Custom Objects to help us smash results together and Win32_LogicalDisk to help us relate the drives and partitions.

$Report = @()
$Disks = Get-WMIObject Win32_logicaldisk | WHERE { $_.DriveType -eq '3' }
$Result = ForEach ( $Disk in $Disks)
{
    $OffSet = Get-WmiObject -Query "Associators of {Win32_LogicalDisk.DeviceID='$($Disk.DeviceID)'} WHERE ResultRole=Antecedent"
    $Report = [PSCustomObject] @{
		ComputerName = $Disk.SystemName
		DriveLetter = $Disk.DeviceID
		Partition = $OffSet.Name
		BlockSize = ( Get-WmiObject Win32_Volume | WHERE {$_.DriveLetter -eq "$($Disk.DeviceID"} | SELECT -expand BlockSize )
		StartingOffSet = $OffSet.StartingOffSet
    }
    $Report
}
$Result | FT -Auto

Now you can determine the Block Size and Starting Offset of your drives easily. Changing those values, well that’s another story. Normally that will require formatting the drive, so its best to get it right in the first place. Make sure all your SQL Server drives are formatted correctly before you get started. Just educate your friendly Storage Admin on what SQL Server needs so everything is correct by the time you get it.

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